Undergraduate Brochure 1996-97

Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto

A Welcome from the Chair and Undergraduate Chair of the Chemistry Department.

Special Notes for 1st Year Students

Should I take CHM 137Y or CHM 151Y?
What should I take in high school if I want to study Chemistry?
Lectures, Labs and Tutorials....What do I do where?
What can I do with a chemistry degree?


Specialist Programs

Major/Minor Programs

Course Descriptions

1st Year Courses

2nd Year Courses

3rd Year Courses

4th Year Courses

199Y Courses

299Y Courses

Second Term Update

Helpful Starting Points

Where To Go To Get What You Need
Departmental Administration Student Associations
Scholarships and Awards Summer Research
Resources Laboratory Safety
Course Selection/Counselling Faculty Directory

Departmental Administration

Our address is: Department of Chemistry ∑ 80 St. George Street ∑ Toronto ∑ ON ∑ M5S 3H6 ∑ (416)978-3564

Chair: M. Moskovits Office: LM 150
Administrative Assistant: Penny Ashcroft Moore Telephone: 978-3566

Associate Chair (Undergraduate Studies): J. Powell Office: LM 151
Administrative Assistant: Joyce Smith Telephone: 978-6033
Undergraduate Secretary: H. OhorodnykOffice : LM 119ATelephone: 978-3604

Associate Chair (Graduate Studies): M.C. Goh Office: LM 153
Administrative Assistant: Darlene Gorzo Telephone: 978-3605

The academic administration of the Department is the responsibility of the Chair and the Associate Chairs. In addition, a number of committees perform specific administrative duties. Of particular interest to undergraduate students is the Undergraduate Studies Committee chaired by Professor Powell.

The Undergraduate Studies Committee has the responsibility of considering each year the courses offered by the Department and proposing such changes, including new or revised courses and/or programs, as may seem necessary or desirable. In addition, the Committee may also serve as a liaison between staff and students to consider any problems which arise from the interaction of undergraduate students with the Department.

For more information on specific Rules and Regulations check the section by that name in the Arts and Science Calendar. Faculty of Arts and Science Registrar's Office: Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, 978-3384/3385.

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Where to Go to Get What You Need

Arts & Science calendars & timetables? Faculty Registrar's Office or your college or the web
Change of name/address? Your college registrar's office
Class location? Faculty Registrar's Office or posted in Department
Confirmation of Degree letter? Faculty Registrar's Office
Copies of exams? Faculty Registrar's Office (within 6 months of exam)
Course outline? General: Undergraduate Handbook/ Specific: Course Coordinator
Course/program counselling? click here
Course prerequisite? Undergraduate Associate Chair (LM 151) or Undergraduate Secretary (LM 119A)
Exam timetable? Faculty Registrar's Office or your college registrar's office or Undergraduate board (outside LM 151) (No telephone inquiries taken)
Final marks for first term courses? Faculty Registrar's Office or the Student Telephone Service (STS)
Lab coat or lab manual?Chem Club (LM 203)
Graduate School information?The Graduate Assistant or click here
Hall Locker? Main Office (LM 151)
Lost and Found? Main Office (LM 151)
Name of textbook for a course?Undergraduate board (outside LM 151)
Petitions and requests for clerical rechecks and remarking? your college registrar's office
Registration and enrollment?your college registrar's office
Scholarship information?Faculty Registrar's Office, your college, Undergraduate Office or click here
Student card replacement?your college registrar's office
Teaching assistant room/phone? Undergraduate board (outside LM 151)
Transcripts? Faculty Registrar's Office
Tutoring? Graduate Assistant (LM 154)
Verification of registration? your college registrar's office
Withdrawal from course/University? your college registrar's office

For more information on specific Rules and Regulations check the section by that name in the Arts and Science Calendar.

Faculty of Arts and Science Registrar's Office: Sidney Smith Hall, 100 St. George Street, Toronto, 978-3384/3385

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A Message from Martin Moskovits
Chair, Department of Chemistry

The University of Toronto is founded on two functions: teaching and scholarship. In science, scholarship takes the form of original research. The two are intimately related. What makes the university educational experience unique is the fact that the student learns from professional practitioners of their subject: those who teach medicine continue to improve medical practice, those who teach history write history and those who teach chemistry create new chemistry in their laboratories. In this way, our students are brought right to the cutting edge of what is new in modern chemistry. And there is lots that's new. Chemistry has transformed such fields as biology, through molecular biology, materials science, through the creation of novel polymers and nanostructured materials and environmental studies through chemical remediation. In turn new technologies such as powerful computing and the laser have transformed chemistry, making believable simulations possible by using advanced theories and transforming the strategy for controlling chemical reactions through innovations such as "coherent control". All of these exciting developments are placed within reach of our undergraduates.

In the Chemistry Department we take undergraduate instruction seriously. Our students have always ranked our instructors very highly. We are proud of that record, guard it zealously and strive to refine it even more. We value you as our student and look forward to offering you advice and guidance regarding your undergraduate program. Do not hesitate to drop in.

Best wishes and great success in your studies.

A Message from John Powell
Associate Chair for Undergraduate Studies, Department of Chemistry

This calendar contains information of interest to all students taking chemistry as part of their studies, and particularly to those about to take first year chemistry courses at the St. George campus of the University of Toronto. It is intended to assist you in your course selection and provides descriptions of the various chemistry-oriented programs which are available. We also have included background material on the operation of the Department, various resources, scholarships and summer research.

My colleagues and I will be happy to answer queries on our programs, courses and procedures. We hope that your association with the department will be interesting, challenging and most of all, successful.

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Student Associations

Chemistry Club, University of Toronto

The University of Toronto Chemistry Club has been in existence for over fifty years. It is intended primarily to involve chemistry students (undergraduate and graduate) in academic programs and social functions not otherwise available. To this end the Club sponsors events such as informal seminars, films, field trips, wine and cheese parties, and many sports teams in the Department. Any student taking a course from the Chemistry Department is encouraged to join the Club. No membership fee is required.

The Chemistry Club is a student chapter of the Canadian Society for Chemistry (C.S.C.) and all members will receive the Institute's monthly journal, Chemistry in Canada, should they choose to become members of the Institute.

The Club executive consists of graduate and undergraduate students from the Chemistry Department. Representatives from all undergraduate years are required on the executive, and anyone interested in occupying one of these positions should see the President or leave his/her name and particulars in LM 203.

The Club raises funds through the sale of lab coats, safety glasses, and test answer booklets. These are available in the Lash Miller Building, Room 203. Times of sales will be posted in the main foyer and outside Room 203.

We hope to see you at all our activities this year. Keep an eye on the bulletin board beside the first floor elevators for notices of all Chem Club events! For more information see: Darcy Brewer/President(Walberg Building Rm 103), Karin Crowhurst/Vice-President (LM 527), Tim Peckham/Secretary (LM 329) or Dave Balaishis/Treasurer (LM 327) or go to LM 203 during office hours.

Chemistry Students' Union

The Chemistry Students' Union operates under the umbrella of the Arts and Science Students' Union. Thus, every undergraduate is a member of both the CSU and ASSU, and is invited to participate in our activities.

The CSU strives to provide a forum for undergraduates to become involved in the Chemistry Department. Near the beginning of the year, we will be seeking class representatives for each section of every chemistry course. These representatives will inform their class of upcoming CSU sponsored career seminars, parties, and other functions. At the end of each year the CSU, with the help of many volunteers, compiles course evaluations that are printed in the ASSU Anti-Calendar.

We are looking forward to a very successful year and we hope to see you at our activities. For more information visit LM 203 during office hours.

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Scholarships and Awards

University Chemistry Club 4th Year Research Prizes The University of Toronto Chemistry Club will award a prize of $100 to the best 4th year research project. This competition is open to any 4th year student enrolled in a research course at the St. George Campus. It is not necessary for names to be submitted to the Chemistry Club as any project undertaken which complies with the above regulations will automatically become eligible.

The recipients will be informed of their prize in writing as soon as results are known and it is hoped that they will be able to attend a reception, to be held in the fall term of the following year, when the awards will be officially presented.

Students who are in the process of fulfilling the requirements of one of the Chemistry Specialist Programs may qualify for the Faculty of Arts and Science Scholarships and Awards which are listed below:

F.E. Beamish Scholarship in Chemistry: Awarded to a third year student with an A average and whose program includes at least three 300-level (or higher) courses in chemistry.

Edward Blake Scholarship in Physical Sciences: Awarded to a second year student with an A average and whose program includes three courses in chemistry and/or physics.

The Chemical Institute of Canada Prize in Chemistry: Awarded to an outstanding third year student with an A average and who is enrolled in the Chemistry Specialist program.

The Chemical Institute of Canada Book Prize: Awarded to an outstanding third year student enrolled in a chemistry program.

The Hypercube Prize in Chemistry: Awarded to an outstanding graduating student in a specialist program in chemistry who intends to pursue graduate work.

The Dr. John Knowles Colling Memorial Scholarship in Sciences: Awarded to an outstanding full-time student who has taken at least three courses in the sciences and who has a minimum A average.

The Gollop Scholarships: Awarded to outstanding students in first, second, and third year who are engaged in a Specialist Program in chemistry or chemistry combined with another discipline and who have obtained an A average in four courses (or their equivalent) in science or mathematics courses forming part of the program.

Frank B. Kenrick Scholarship in Chemistry: Awarded to an outstanding student with an A average and who is enrolled in either the Chemical Physics or the Chemistry Specialist Program; the student must also enroll in the fourth year of either specialist program in order to be eligible.

Henry Myron Marshack Prize in Chemistry or in Chemistry and Physics: Awarded to a second year student with an A average and whose program includes three courses in chemistry or three in physics and chemistry.

The David McLaren Scholarship in Chemistry: Awarded to one or more outstanding third year students in the Specialist Program in Chemistry or Chemistry and Biochemistry.

The L.V. Redman Prizes in Chemistry: A prize is awarded to the two students who rank highest in each of 137Y and 151Y (terms under review).

The L.V. Redman Scholarships in Mathematics and Chemistry: Awarded to one second year student and to one third year student who have a minimum A average and who have taken at least three courses in a combination of chemistry and mathematics.

The Society of Chemical Industry Merit Award in Chemistry: Awarded to an outstanding fourth year full-time student with an A average and who is completing a specialist program in chemistry or chemistry combined with another discipline; the student must also have a cumulative average of B and have completed the program within four years.

The Ivan Szak Prize in Chemistry: Awarded to a fourth year student who graduates with the highest standing in the Chemistry Specialist Program (a minimum average of A is required).

The Ivan Szak Scholarships in Chemistry: Awarded to two outstanding third year students who have completed the required courses of the third year of the Specialist Program in Chemistry or Chemical Physics with a minimum A average in these courses.

The Daniel Wilson Scholarship in Science: One award is made to an outstanding third year student in chemistry with a minimum A average.

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Summer Research

The Department encourages qualified students to broaden their experience in chemistry by doing research during the summer months in conjunction with a member of the professorial staff. Students are encouraged to make individual arrangements with staff members. It would be helpful to obtain a copy of the Departmental Graduate brochure to determine various areas of interest.

Departmental Resources

Departmental Library

Room 429, Lash Miller Building

The Department of Chemistry Library is situated on the fourth floor of the research wing and is open from 9:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Monday through Friday. The following are the borrowing privileges:

Books: Two weeks
Bound Journals: Two days (after 4:00 p.m. to be returned by 10:00 a.m.)
Unbound Journals: To be used in the Library only
Reserve Books: After 4:00 p.m. to be returned by 10:00 a.m. The reserve books include books which are in heavy demand for use in undergraduate courses and are shelved behind the circulation desk.

Books can be signed out at 4:00 p.m. on a first come first served basis. "Holds" cannot be placed on reserve books.

Because of space limitation the Departmental Library normally is not open to students enrolled in first year courses. Reference books and other resource material for these courses can be found in the various University and College libraries. In addition, there is a special resource room (LM 204) which is available for use by undergraduate students only; the hours of operation will be announced in September.

Departmental Computer Facility

Computer Laboratory for Undergraduate Chemistry (CLUC)
Room 3, Lash Miller Building ∑ (Consult Daisy Da Silva, Room 3, 978-1388)

The computer facility has become an integrated part of the undergraduate teaching at the Department, offering students new dimensions in learning. CLUC serves to help in interactive learning, preparation for exams and tests, and makes computers accessible to students for evaluation and preparation of lab reports. It is equipped with IBM PS/2, IBM compatible 486 DX and Apple Macintosh LC computers and laser printers. Software includes teaching programs, computerized tutorials and quizzes, and packages which allow visualization and animation of molecular geometries, graphing and statistical analysis of experimental data, simulations of various experiments, and text processing.

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Laboratory Safety

Chemistry is very much a practical science and as such the laboratory environment is a very important one in the undergraduate program in chemistry. One particular aspect of laboratory work which is of concern to all is safety.

The development of a sensible and conscious awareness of safety in the controlled conditions of the undergraduate laboratory is not only sound policy from the point of view of self-preservation (and the preservation of others) but will also be valuable to you in your everyday life and future employment. (In industry a poor safety record is indicative of production and profit loss).

In the undergraduate laboratories you must:

1. Wear eye protection at ALL times. (Your eyes may otherwise be damaged by other people's mistakes.)
2. Wear a lab coat at all times.
3. Never eat, drink or smoke.
4. Read carefully the safety sections in your laboratory manual.
5. Most importantly: THINK SAFETY at all times.

Always analyze the experiment you wish to perform for the following risks:

1. Fire
2. Toxicity of chemicals (reactants AND products)

The common emergencies which occur in laboratories are: thermal and chemical burns; chemicals in the eye; cuts and puncture wounds from glass or metal; skin irritation by chemicals; poisoning by ingestion, inhalation or skin absorption; asphyxiation (chemical or electrical). Most of the accidents which occur in the undergraduate laboratories would be avoided if YOU, the undergraduate, would


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Special Notes for 1st Year Students

What is the difference between the two first year chemistry courses, CHM 137Y and CHM 151Y?

CHM 151Y is the course for students who are likely to specialize in chemistry or a field related to chemistry. It will fulfil the first year chemistry requirement for other programs and for admission to other faculties. The programs which the Chemistry Department sponsors, and for which a substantial number of chemistry courses are needed, are: Chemistry, Chemical Physics, Materials Chemistry, Chemistry and Geology and Biological Chemistry.

If the B.Sc. program which appeals to you includes several chemistry courses at the second and higher years, then CHM 151Y is the course in which you should enrol. You will find a complete list of programs which lead to a B.Sc. degree in the Faculty of Arts and Science calendar.

Students who enrol in CHM 151Y are expected to take both a first year mathematics course (either MAT 135Y or MAT 137Y) and a first year physics course (either PHY 138Y or PHY 140Y) together with the chemistry course.

The high school courses which you need to complete in order to prepare adequately for CHM 151Y are: OAC chemistry, OAC calculus, and OAC algebra and geometry.

CHM 137Y is the most appropriate first-year general chemistry course for those students who will be combining chemistry with study in the life or basic medical sciences (for example: Human Biology, Microbiology, Physiology, Zoology, etc.) and is an important aspect of professional faculty admission requirements.

To take CHM 137Y, you should have a good high school science background, preferably including OAC chemistry, with mathematics and physics. If you do not have OAC chemistry, but you have at least one of OAC mathemtaics or physics, you may enrol in CHM 137Y. However, you are strongly advised to consult with the Department before starting the course.

It is recommended that students in CHM 137Y also take first year courses in mathematics (MAT 135Y/137Y) and physics (PHY 110Y/138Y/140Y). Some higher level CHM courses have MAT/PHY pre-requisites.

Students without OAC (or equivalent) in mathematics (C/A&G) or physics are strongly advised to consult the Department before they start to take CHM 137Y/151Y.

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Students are expected to be familiar with the following basic material from their high school courses:

1. The names and symbols of the first twenty elements in the periodic table plus a similar number of other common elements and of ions;
2. The common valencies of the above elements and the periodic nature of these valencies;
3. The concepts of the nuclear atom, atomic number, and atomic weight;
4. Formulae and nomenclature of some simple molecules and ions;
5. Chemical equations and their use in calculations relating to the reactants;
6. Calculations involving concentrations of solutions, amounts of material, and the units used;
7. The concept of "ideal" behaviour in gases;
8. The concept of acids, bases, and salts;
9. Use of units, especially SI units;
10. Mathematical operations appropriate to elementary chemical calculations;
11. Some simple experimental laboratory techniques.

Students in CHM 137Y or 151Y who have experienced considerable difficulty and who have poor grades in the first term will be offered the opportunity by the Department to withdraw from CHM 137Y/151Y at the end of first term, and to start again in the sequence CHM 132H, 133H. CHM 132H will cover much of the material previously given in the first term of CHM 137Y, concentrating on the areas which generally cause most difficulty. It may be taken only with the permission of the Department by students who were registered in CHM 137Y/151Y in the immediately preceding term. CHM 133H, which will be the second half of CHM 137Y, will be available only in the summer session to students who have successfully completed CHM 132H in the immediately preceding winter session. If a student, having taken CHM 132H, does not complete CHM 133H at the appointed time, he/she will need to take CHM 137Y as an extra course (not for credit for the degree).

If you choose CHM 137Y, and later discover that you want to specialize in chemistry (or a closely allied field), will it be possible to do so?

Yes, but you are again advised to consult the Department. Both CHM 137Y and 151Y are acceptable pre-requisites for second and later year Chemistry courses. The Department encourages potential specialists to take CHM 151Y, but a good performance in CHM 137Y will certainly give more than adequate preparation for later year courses.

Whichever chemistry course you choose, this is how they will be organized:

Your class time in chemistry will consist of 3 hours of lectures a week, a 3-3Ĺ hour lab once every two weeks (beginning in October) and a weekly 1 hour tutorial.

The course mark is comprised of a term work component and the final exam mark. Term tests are scheduled at regular intervals during the session. These, together with the laboratory work, account for the term mark. A detailed marking scheme is announced at the beginning of each academic year.

Lectures: Attendance at the lectures is essential. Information sheets giving proposed lecture outlines will be distributed at the beginning of term. Students are urged to "read ahead" in the relevant chapters of the book.

College Cohorts: First year students taking CHM 137Y, PHY 138Y, MAT 135Y, and BIO 150Y are encouraged to enrol in their college section. This will allow the closest possible links between lecture and tutorial sections, and the best balanced class schedule. Lectures and tutorials for the St. Michael's College and Victoria College Chemistry sections will be held on the east side of the campus.

Tutorials: In each course students are assigned to a tutorial group which meets for one hour each week. The tutorials in CHM 137Y are linked to the College lecture sections. The tutorial allows you to meet in a smaller group with a teaching assistant to discuss any difficulties (lecture or lab) which you encounter. Problem solving skills will be emphasized and there will be a short quiz in every second tutorial.

Laboratories: Each student will attend a laboratory period once every two weeks beginning in late October/November. One demonstrator is available to each group of about 20 students to discuss problems and questions connected with the experimental work. Most laboratory periods begin with a short videotape demonstrating experimental techniques, etc., used in the experiment. The laboratory manual includes full instructions and some background material, and it is essential that students read the appropriate section before coming to the laboratory. Although the emphasis is on basic experimental techniques of observation and measurement, some simple instrumentation is also introduced. In the lab, each student performs the assigned experiments individually, not with a partner under the supervision of a demonstrator. The lab mark is based on reports which you write for the experiments performed, an assessment both of your preparation for, and your performance in, the lab classes, and possibly a written lab exam.

Assistance: The lecturers will announce office hours during which they can be consulted about problems with lecture material. Tutors and lab demonstrators are also very useful sources of extra help. Room 204 in the Lash Miller Building is available to first year students as a study and resource centre. The lecturers, lab instructors and tutors will staff this room daily according to posted schedules. Students in these courses who are experiencing difficulty with the material are urged to make use of this facility. The Departmentís computing facility (CLUC) can provide students with the opportunity to further study or review background material. The facility is open to first year students at scheduled times.

Problem Sets: No formal problem sets will be assigned. However, specific problems for study may be suggested by lecturers or tutors. Both the textbook and the study guide contain many excellent problems of varying difficulty. Students are encouraged to work at these, to seek help when necessary, and to use the solutions manual.

Tests: Periodic tests will be set, and there will also be a three-hour final examination. The total mark for the course will be based on the tutorial quizzes, the tests, the final examination, and the laboratory. The course marking scheme is explained and specified in the course information sheets.

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What career opportunities exist for students with a B.Sc. specialist in chemistry?

The employment possibilities for chemistry graduates are as numerous as they are varied. Chemists are employed by such industries as: Computers and Telecommunications Fine and Heavy Chemical Manufacturing Food and Beverage Production Mining and Metallurgy Petroleum Pharmaceuticals/Drugs Plastics Pulp and Paper

In these industries, the chemistís role could be concerned with: Industrial Hygiene Management Manufacturing Process Control Quality Control Research and Development Technical Sales and Service

Chemists are also hired by federal, provincial and municipal government agencies in the areas of: Education Forensic investigation Mineral analysis Public healthResearch and development support for resource industriesTechnical and analytical information development Waste management Water and air quality management

Some chemists write for the technical press or report for large newspapers, others are involved in the publication and editing of research/scientific journals. Chemists can find employment as patent agents, or they may combine their B.Sc. training with a law degree to become patent lawyers.

Careers in clinical chemistry include jobs in hospital laboratories analyzing body tissues and fluids for diagnostic purposes, developing new analytical techniques, and pursuing fundamental research.

A most important career for some chemists is in education. The next generations of scientists will be best served by the stimulation and excitement that can be generated by the well-educated university science graduate.

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Entry Into Graduate School

In general, students who have completed a specialist program including chemistry are eligible for entry into graduate work in chemistry provided they meet the academic requirements (a minimum B+ average). Students who have not followed a Chemistry Specialist program but who have a strong undergraduate scientific background may also apply for admission to graduate work in chemistry. Students with a deficient undergraduate chemistry background may in some cases be admitted to graduate study and be required to enrol in one or more undergraduate courses as an M.Sc. student. Students who are contemplating graduate work but who are not following a specialist program are urged to consult the Department before they begin their third year of study. For further information please contact the Graduate Office (Room 153).

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Click here for information on Specialist Programs or for the Major/Minor Programs.

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Course Descriptions

1st Year Courses

2nd Year Courses

3rd Year Courses

4th Year Courses

This site created and maintained by Joyce Smith. The author is a member of .
Last update: 6 December 1996.